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【美国篇】2013赴美社会调研

  发布时间:2013-11-11 加入收藏 打印文章
2013赴美社会调研
项目时间:2013715日-86
学生人数:3
项目简介:青年师生赴美社会调研项目,由全美最富盛名的美国教育资源发展基金会Educational Resource Development Trust (ERDT)主办。项目要求青年师生运用所学知识,以科学方法论为指导,对有关社会现象或社会问题,深入实地进行调查研究,从而对调查对象的起因,形成和发展态势做出科学描述。赴美社会调研,不同于国内的社会调研,项目立足于一系列在美期间的调研活动及美国家庭生活,调研人员深入到真实的美国社会及生活环境,结合调研活动的安排及计划,完成对调研主题的深入研究和讨论,收获一份真实的社会调研报告。去年学校在暑期赴美社会实践的基础上首次派出2位学生参加优秀大学生暑期赴美社会调研项目,今年我校继续派出3位学生参加该项目。
 
 
学生感言:
 ——11应用英语孙倩敏
在中国,公益组织和志愿者这样的名词已经渐渐走近人们的生活。在美国,虽然人们的时间观念和金钱观念比较强,但是他们仍愿意出钱、出时间为需要帮助的人做志愿者。
1994年12月5日中国青年志愿者协会的成立,标志着中国内地志愿者活动的正式开展。目前,全国参加志愿者服务的青年已达5520万,已建立了7000多个青年志愿者服务基地、2000多个青年志愿者服务站、31个省级青年志愿协会,为社会提供了11亿小时以上的无偿服务,获得了社会的广泛好评。
拿我们学校来说,我校于2009年开始试行义工制度。在校园里,餐厅、公寓、图书馆、机房等地方,都能看见我校学生在履行义工的义务。除了校内,我校的学生在先后在校外各大小活动中参与了各种公益活动,如2010年在绍兴举办的第六届世界合唱比赛我校有800多名学生参与了志愿者活动;在2008年绍兴站奥运圣火传递活动中,我校218名师生幸运地被选为奥运志愿者,担负了火炬传递100点的定点引领员,以及主要路段安保员的工作。
近年来,国内如中国红十字会,中国社会福利基金会,中华少年儿童慈善救助基金会等大小公益组织先后的兴起也可见国民素质的整体提升。其中,由媒体人士邓飞等人与贵州省青少年发展基金会成立的专项基金——快乐微基金,在红板小学和兴隆小学成功实施了“免费午餐计划”让人不禁赞叹,原来公益的力量是如此惊人。再比如2007年4月,中国红十字会创办“李连杰壹基金计划”,提出了“1人+1元+每一个月=1个大家庭”的概念,即每人每月最少捐一元,集合每个人的力量让小捐款变成大善款,随时帮助大家庭中需要帮助的人。几年来,这一基于“让公益成为习惯”的理念得到了社会广泛的响应。
美国人中许多基督教徒认为,上帝是博爱的,人与人是平等的,没有谁愿意贫穷,当你为别人提供援助时,你不是施舍者,只是你用博爱精神去帮助别人。如果你做了错事,一定要用行动来赎罪.这种信仰的力量也许是许多人选择志愿者服务的动力。同样的,在中国,也有相似的宗教信仰的力量,那就是佛教的理论:人来到世上本身就带有很多孽障,我们来到世上就是为了做善事来消除我们的孽障的。
同样的,美国也出台了相关政策来鼓励青年学生进入社会提供义工服务。如《全国与社区服务法案》中规定:对做满1400个小时的青年义工,政府将提供4725美元的奖学金,既用作大学学费,也可用作职业训练或偿还大学贷款。美国中学生报考大学时,义工活动情况也是大学考察的重要内容之一。美国许多中学把参加义工劳动作为学生毕业和获得中学文凭的必需条件,工时从20小时到200小时不等。
在美国,做义工早已成为美国的文化传统。从家庭、学校、机关、教堂、社区,到县市政、州乃至全国性的一些活动,都可以看到社区义工人员在提供服务。从美国的历史来看,历任总统都非常重视义工服务,联邦政府也在不同时期制订了多种支持培育计划,从而为社区义工服务的生根开花奠定了坚实的基础。各级政府不仅在资金方面给予大力支持,而且还力推诸多优惠政策,比如税收方面,社区义工人员只要在特定的非营利性组织从事义工,服务时间是可以抵税的。
总而言之,美国的社会公益组织及社会福利机构及志愿者出现的时间比中国早,影响规模也相对较大。但由于历史及国家性质不同,公益组织和志愿者服务的影响程度自然不同。
 
——英语1018班许灵丽
Every known society has families, but the structure of the family varies from culture to culture, and the function of the family has changed over time. Families are defined as relationship, in which people live together with commitment, from an economic unit and care for any young, and consider the group to their identity.
Belonging to a family is one bonding almost everyone in the world shares. The United States has many different types of families, but the traditional structure of the American family -- mother, father and children -- continues to prevail for the most part as a new century unfolds. Yet, over the past several decades, US society has witnessed an evolution in family structure and daily life in many aspects, because of many factors, like advancements in science to the composition of the workplace. Single parenthood, adoptive households, step-parenting, stay-at-home fathers, grandparents raising children are but a few of the newer tiles in the society. 
    The typical American child spends six hours a day, five days a week, 180 days a year in school. Children in the US start preschool or nursery school at age four or under, kindergarten at five years of age. Schools provide American children with much more academic education. More than 80 percent of all students participate in extracurricular activities, such as sports, student newspapers, drama clubs, debate teams, choral groups and bands.
    During their leisure time, American people spend much time watching television, listening to music or playing computer games, but many kids also have part-time jobs. One recent poll indicated that nine out of 10 teenagers polled said they either had a job or would like one. Child labor laws set restrictions on the types of work that youths under 16 years can do. Many youths work part-time on weekends or after school at fast-food restaurants, hold delivery jobs or work in stores. Many youths are also involved in community service organizations or active in church and religious-group activities. Other belong to youth groups such as Girls or Boys club ,were they learn about citizenship, crafts, arts, camping and other outdoor activities.
Thousands of Americans volunteer to help take care of the elderly, the handicapped and hospital patients, or help clean up the environment. While for most American life today is nearly free of serious conflict, young people are still under many types of stress. Peer pressure, changing family conditions, mobility of families, unemployment and problems at school may lead to use of alcohol or drugs, the refusal to attend school, running away from home. 
In conclusion, the family structure and daily life are mostly shaped by the culture background. As we look about the world, and even in real society, we encounter a good many differences in the ways in which families are organized. What’s more, the structure and daily life are always changing.
 
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